Coined by music journalist Jerry Wexler in 1947, the term rhythm and blues, or R&B, has been applied to a number of different types of African American popular music. It originally described an urban music style that grew out of the blues in the period after World War II. Today the term is most commonly used for music that is more closely related to soul and hip-hop than to that of the early R&B pioneers.
The closest forerunner of rhythm and blues was a style of blues popularized in the 1930s by bandleader Louis Jordan. This music, sometimes called jump blues, was characterized by humorous lyrics and upbeat rhythms derived from the piano-based boogie-woogie blues style as well as classic blues. Some performers added jazz and even Latin influences to the mix. Along with Jordan, some of the leading artists in this style were Amos Milburn, Roy Milton, Jimmy Liggins, Joe Liggins, Floyd Dixon, Wynonie Harris, Big Joe Turner, and Charles Brown.
Early rhythm and blues was recorded largely in Los Angeles, California, by small record labels such as Modern, RPM, and Specialty. The founding of Atlantic Records in 1947 by Ahmet Ertegun and Herb Abramson shifted the industry’s center to New York City, New York. In 1953 they brought in Wexler as a partner, and he and Ertegun were instrumental in moving rhythm-and-blues music forward. Atlantic hired jazz musicians as studio players and paid particular attention to the sound quality of their recordings. The label introduced some of the top female names in rhythm and blues—most notably Ruth Brown and LaVern Baker—and signed Ray Charles. Wexler and Ertegun worked closely with Clyde McPhatter (both in and out of his group the Drifters) and Chuck Willis, both of whom were important figures in early 1950s rhythm and blues. Record labels and studios in Cincinnati, Ohio; Chicago, Illinois; Houston, Texas; Memphis, Tennessee; and New Orleans, Louisiana, also played pivotal roles in the spread of rhythm and blues.
By the mid-1950s rhythm and blues had come to mean black popular music that was not aimed primarily at teenagers. Much of the guitar-led electric blues music coming from Chicago and Memphis came to be considered rhythm and blues because it appealed to older listeners. Thus, although they had little to nothing in common with the earlier generation of band-backed blues singers, performers such as Muddy Waters, Howlin’ Wolf, and B.B. King became regarded as rhythm-and-blues artists. Black popular music intended for a younger audience was becoming known as rock and roll. Because the distinction between rock and roll and rhythm and blues was not based on any hard-and-fast rules, most performers made records that fit in both categories. Among the artists who straddled the two styles were Chuck Berry, Little Richard, Bo Diddley, Sam Cooke, and Ray Charles.
By the 1960s the new genre called soul was emerging. It combined blues with another form of traditional African American music—gospel. Pivotal artists in the transition from R&B to soul were Charles and Cooke as well as Jackie Wilson. In 1969, reflecting the rise of the new style, the music magazine Billboard changed the name of the black pop chart from Rhythm and Blues to Soul.
As African American music continued to evolve, the terms used to describe it varied as well. R&B returned to the name of the Billboard singles chart in 1990. In 1999 the chart was again renamed, this time to R&B/Hip-Hop, to reflect the growing influence of hip-hop music . Popular R&B artists of the early 21st century included Mary J. Blige, Alicia Keys, John Legend, Usher, Beyoncé, and Frank Ocean.